It also diminishes individual responsibility for their own actions, which promotes violence and aggression. When groups feel at risk, their survival becomes paramount, and the ingroup cooperates defensively at the same time as behaving antagonistically towards any outgroup.
Warranting the future existence of the group.
Warfare therefore emerged as a rational response to a changing lifestyle. Alternatively, group displays of aggression as an adaptive response are present in warfare. This suggests that aggression is more to do with social learning than evolutionary adaptations.
This would have enabled our ancestors to avoid attack and so leave behind more offspring. Hence why a similar situation today would trigger the same response as our ancestors.
However, evolutionary explanations struggle to explain this, as women would have considerably less to gain from fighting, and more to lose in terms of their reproductive Discuss evolutionary explanations of group displays.
This has no adaptive advantage to humans and so contradicts the evolutionary theory of aggression. Sosis believes that engaging in a painful religious ritual has been favoured by natural selection as it signals commitment to membership of a group and everything it stands for.
Religious Rituals Aggressive behaviour can be self-inflicted, for example as part of an initiation rite or religious ritual. This suggests that the home advantage is not due to crowd support, and so is likely due to territoriality, supporting the evolutionary view.
Warfare is another aggressive display that may be explained in terms of evolution. These permanent displays also minimise the ability of males to defect to another group, again increasing their commitment to the group of which they are a member.
This is, however, a difficult hypothesis to test as the nature of the social threat is often quite vague.
Therefore, to be a good deterrent, the costs of the ritual must be related to the size of the benefit. Discuss evolutionary explanations Essay - Paper Example Discuss evolutionary explanations Essay Discuss evolutionary explanations of group displays of aggression The adaptive and functional benefits of aggressive behaviour must outweigh the possible costs in order for it to be favourable - Discuss evolutionary explanations Essay introduction.
Our understanding of displays of warfare is largely limited to males. It also diminishes individual responsibility for their own actions, which promotes violence and aggression. Therefore aggression in warfare may be caused by other extraneous variables which are unaccounted for by the evolutionary explanation, making research into it low in internal validity and ungeneralisable to sports.
The power-threat hypothesis Blalock, states that groups which pose a threat to the majority are more likely to be discriminated against and subjected to violent action.
Research support for xenophobia in group displays comes from Foldesi who also found intolerance towards outsiders in a study of Hungarian football crowds, with violent incidents based on racist or xenophobic attitudes being displayed across all stadiums.
This may be more a consequence of deindividuation than of evolutionary adaptation. He found that racist conduct of a core of extremist supporters led to an increase of spectators violence in general and xenophobic outburst in particular. This suggests that aggression is more to do with social learning than evolutionary adaptations.
Therefore this reduces the validity of the explanation, unlike other explanations such as social learning theory, which can be tested.
AO1 Warfare Warfare is another group display of aggression that may be explained by evolution. AO2 There is some research to support this from Chagnon. In societies that experienced frequent warfare, males are more likely than females to escape infanticide due to their potential usefulness in battle.
He found that racist conduct of a core of extremist supporters led to an increase of spectators violence in general and xenophobic outburst in particular.Start studying CH: 2 Aggression - Q.
Discuss evolutionary explanations of group displays of aggression in humans (sport and or warfare) 8 and 16 marks. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.
Discuss evolutionary explanations of group display in humans, e.g. sport and warfare. The costliness of permanent displays such as scars and mutilation serve as signals of commitment to the group.
These permanent displays also minimise the ability of males to defect to another group, again increasing their commitment to the group of which. Evolutionary explanations of aggression- Group displays (sport and warfare) study guide by FMALPE includes 5 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more.
Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. Issues debates and approaches (IDA) for evolutionary displays of human aggression Imposed etics and ethnocentrism Explanations of human aggression tend to focus on an industrialised Western point of view, and in so doing fail to consider the individuality and differences of other cultures.
One explanation of group displays in humans is from Wilson who claims that xenophobia has been documented in every group of animals displaying higher. Discuss evolutionary explanations of group displays of aggression (8+16 marks) Discuss evolutionary explanations of human aggression including infidelity and/or jealousy (8+16 marks) Discuss explanations of genetic factors in aggression (8+16 marks).Download